Tuesday, April 25, 2006
Ice cream originally iced cream is a frozen dessert made from dairy products such as cream (or substituted ingredients, combined with flavourings and sweeteners. This mixture is cooled while stirrin to prevent largeice crystals from forming. Although the term "ice cream" is sometimes used to mean froze dessers and snacksin general, it is usually reserved for frozen deerts and snacks ade with a high percentage of milk fat. Frozen custard, ice milk, sorbet and other similar products are often alsoclled ice cream. Governments often regulate the use f these terms based on quantities of ingredients.Before the development of modern refrieration ice cream was a luxury item reserve fr special occasions.
The making of ice cream as originally a laborious process. The temperature was reduced by placing the ice cream mixture into a container that was immersed in a mixture of crushed ice and salt. The dissolving of salt in water is endothermic and the sner with cream to make better contact with the melted water/ice mixtureIce was cut commercially from lakes and ponds during the winter and stored in lage heapsin holes in the ground or in wood-frame ice houses, insulated by straw. Ice cream was made by hand i a large bowl surrounded by packed ice and salt. The hand-cranked churn, which simaking production simpler. Te world's first commercial ice-cream factory was opened in Baltimore, Maryland in 1851, by Jacob Fussell, a dairy farmer. An unstable demand for his milk led him to eryone could afford. Fussell opened ice cream parlors as far west as Texas. Many were still around well into the 20th century. He sold his business to Borden.
The development of industrial refrigeration by German engineer Carl von Lindeduring the 1870s obviated the cutting and storing of natural ice and then the continuous-prcess freeze ice-cream machine, geneally an electrical device churns the ice cream while refrigerated inside a household freezer or using ice nd salt for cooling.Today, ice cream is enjoyed around the world on a daily basis thanks to mass production. Ice cream can be purchased in large tub and squrounds from supermarkets/grocery stores, in smaller quantities from ice cream shops, convenience stores, and milk bars, and in individual serves from small carts or vans at public events and places. There arg refrigerated vans, often equipped with speakers playing a children's music tune. On the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, ice cream is sometimes sold to beachgoers from small powerboats equipped with chest freezers.
species harvested for vanillin is Vanilla planifolia. It is a native of Mexico, though now widely grown throughout the tropics. Madagascar is the world's largest producer. Additional sources include Vanilla pompona and Vanilla tahitiensis (grown in Tahiti).Vanilla is a vine: it grows by climbing over some existing tree, pole, or other support. It can be grown in a wood (on trees), in a plantation (on trees or poles; possibly alternating with rows of sugar cane), or in a "shader", in increasing orders of productivity. If left alone, it will grow as high as possible on the support; every year, growers fold the higher parts of the plant downwards so that the plant stays at heights accessible by a standing human.
The part of the plant in which the distinctive flavory compounds are found is the fruit, resulting from the pollination of the flower. One flower produces one fruit. Vanilla planifolia flowers are hermaphrodite: they carry both male (anther) and female (stigma) organs; however, to avoid self-pollenization (which would tend to result in genetic deficiencies), a membrane separates those organs. Such flowers may only be naturally pollinated by a specific bee found in Mexico. Growers have tried to bring this bee into other growing locales, to no avail. The only way to produce fruits is thus artificial pollination.
A simple and efficient artificial pllination method was introduced in 1841 by a 12 year-old slave named Edmond Albius on Réunion, then a French colony, in the Indian Ocean. This method is still used today. Using a needle, an agricultural worker folds back the membrane separating the anther and the stigma, then presses the anther on the stigma. The flower is then self-pollenized, and will produce a fruit. The vanilla flower lasts about one day, sometimes less, thus growers have to inspect their plantations every day for open flowers, a human-intensive task.
The fruit (a bean), if left on the plant, will ripen and open at the end; it will then exhaust the distinctive vanill smell. The fruit contains tiny black seeds, which, in ripe fruits, carry the vanilla flavour. These black seeds are the tiny black "dust" one may find in dishes prepared with whole natural vanilla. Vanlla planifolia seeds will not germinate in normal ground; they need a certain symbiotic mushroom.
Growers reproduce the plant by cutting: they cut off parts of the plants, plant them in the ground and wit for them to grow new rootsVanilla wak to Europe (afrom t the rest of the world) by the Spanish Conquistadors.In ancient Mexico the Totonac people were regarded s the producers of the bet vanilla. The Totnac are from the region that is now known as the state of Veracruz (Papantla, Mexico, holds itself out as the origi of vanilla). They continued to be the world's chief producrs of e flavoring through the mid19th century. At that time, French vanil growers in Mexico New oke ws introduced in 1985, theeconomy of Madagascar crashed, and only recovered after New Coke flopped.The reason was than halved during this period. By 2002, the company introduced Vanilla Coke, which is Coca-Cola with higher concentrations of vanilla flavor.
The market price of vanilla rose dramatically in the late 1970s due to a typhoon. Prices stayed stable at this level through the early 1980s due to the pressure of recently introduced Indonesian vailla. In the mid 1980s the cartel that had controlled vanilla prices and distriution since its creation in 1930 disbanded. Priceropped 70% over the next few years to nearly $20 USD per kilo. This changed due to typhoon Huddah, which struck early in the year 2000. The typhoon, political inability, and por weather in the third year drove vanilla pricesto an astonishing $500 USD per kilo in 2004. A good crop coupled with decreased demand have pushed the market pice down to the $40 per kilo range in the middl of 200Chemical structure of vanilinantly roxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). Another minor component of vanilla essential oil iactual extract of the seedpods, and the far cheaper synthetic essence, basically consisting of a solution of synthetic vanillin in ethanol.